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Bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis is an infectious non-inflammatory lesion of the vagina in which the normal flora is replaced by polymicrobial associations of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis occurs against the background of immune disorders, inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system, menstrual disorders, prolonged use of the intrauterine device, unsystematic use of antibiotics and hormones. Accompanied by copious discharge with foul odor. Sometimes runs asymptomatic. Diagnosis determined on the basis of complaints, history, and special test data. Treatment – local and general pharmacotherapy, for example,

General information

Bacterial vaginosis is a non-inflammatory infectious process in which the normal lactoflora of the vagina is replaced by associations of anaerobes. It is a widespread pathology and is diagnosed in 21-33% of patients who consult a gynecologist. It may have a latent or obvious clinical symptomatology. When the general condition of the body improves, the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis disappear or flatten out, but re-appear under the influence of various endogenous and exogenous factors, which determines the long-term relapsing course of the disease. The pathology does not belong to the venereal diseases. Because of hormonal changes, it often occurs during gestation and menopause. The treatment of bacterial vaginosis is carried out by specialists in gynecology.

Causes of bacterial vaginosis
Normally, more than 95% of the vaginal microflora in women of childbearing age are aerobic and anaerobic lactobacilli. The remaining 5% includes more than 40 different types of microorganisms. The ratio of anaerobes to aerobes in a healthy vaginal microflora is 10:1. Lactobacilli are the basis of the natural barrier between the external environment and the uterine cavity. Through acid formation and release of hydrogen peroxide, they create an acidic environment that prevents the reproduction of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microbes.

Under adverse conditions arising under the influence of one or more endogenous and exogenous factors, the quantitative and qualitative composition of the microflora changes. The number of lactobacilli decreases, other microorganisms, primarily obligate anaerobes, begin to multiply actively. The total number of bacteria increases. Bacterial vaginosis develops. A distinctive feature of this pathology is the absence of a specific pathogen. The cause of the infectious process is not one type of microorganisms, but polymicrobial associations.

Bacterial vaginosis can occur with immune disorders as a result of general weakening of the body, acute and chronic infectious diseases. Another factor contributing to the development of bacterial vaginosis are changes in the hormonal background during the phase change of the menstrual cycle, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, single-phase cycles, during gestation, adolescence and menopause. Taking hormones (corticosteroids, oral contraceptives), antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal drugs is important.

The probability of the development of bacterial vaginosis increases in cases of poor hygiene, frequent douches, high radiation exposure (radiation therapy, irradiation during professional contact with radioactive substances), malformations of the reproductive system, conditions after surgical interventions, polyps and cysts of the vagina, use of the intrauterine device, diaphragms, tampons and spermicides. Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis also include conditions after abortion and childbirth, atrophic changes in the vaginal mucosa, and intestinal dysbacteriosis.